top of page

Principles of Accounting

Principles of Accounting

Accounting is the process of recording, classifying, and summarizing financial transactions to provide information that is useful in making business decisions. 

There are several principles of accounting that form the basis for the field and are used to guide the preparation of financial statements.

The first principle of accounting is the principle of business entity. This principle states that a business should be treated as a separate entity from its owners and any transactions should be recorded and reported separately from personal transactions.

The second principle is the principle of consistency. This principle states that a business should use the same accounting methods and practices from one period to the next, in order to provide a consistent and comparable set of financial statements.

The third principle is the principle of going concern. This principle assumes that a business will continue to operate indefinitely and that its assets will not be liquidated in the near future. This assumption allows businesses to record assets at their original cost rather than their current market value.

The fourth principle is the principle of full disclosure. This principle requires businesses to disclose all relevant information in their financial statements, including any potential liabilities or contingencies.

The fifth principle is the principle of materiality. This principle states that information is material if its inclusion or omission would change the overall understanding of the financial statements.

There are several important concepts and jargon used in the field of accounting. Some examples include:

  • Debits and credits: In double-entry accounting, a debit is an entry on the left side of an account and a credit is an entry on the right side. The total of the debits must equal the total of the credits in order for the accounting to be in balance.

  • Assets: Assets are resources owned by a business that have monetary value and are expected to provide future economic benefits. Examples of assets include cash, inventory, and property.

  • Liabilities: Liabilities are obligations or debts that a business owes to others. Examples of liabilities include loans, accounts payable, and taxes owed.

  • Equity: Equity represents the ownership interest in a business. It is equal to the difference between a business's assets and liabilities.

  • Revenue: Revenue is the income generated by a business through the sale of goods or services.

  • Expenses: Expenses are the costs incurred by a business in the process of generating revenue.

Understanding these principles and concepts is important in business studies because they form the foundation for financial accounting and decision-making. 

They help businesses accurately record and report financial transactions, and provide a basis for comparing the performance of different businesses.

bottom of page