Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) was a French sociologist and one of the founders of modern sociology. He is known for his contributions to the understanding of social order, social solidarity, and the role of social institutions in society.
Durkheim's most famous theory is his theory of social solidarity, which explains how social order is maintained in a society. According to Durkheim, there are two types of social solidarity: mechanical solidarity, which is based on shared values and beliefs, and organic solidarity, which is based on the division of labor.
In societies with mechanical solidarity, people are more likely to have similar values and beliefs and to rely on each other for support. In societies with organic solidarity, people are more likely to rely on specialized roles and expertise to meet their needs.
Durkheim also made important contributions to the study of social institutions, such as the family, education, and religion. He argued that social institutions serve important functions in society, such as providing socialization, regulation, and integration.
Durkheim's contributions to sociology are significant because he was one of the first to develop a comprehensive theory of society and social solidarity. His ideas about social order, social solidarity, and the role of social institutions in society have had a major impact on the development of sociology and continue to be influential in the field today.
Overall, Émile Durkheim is an important figure in the history of sociology and his contributions to the discipline continue to be relevant and influential today.