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Colonialism & Imperialism

Colonialism & Imperialism

European colonialism and imperialism refers to the period of European expansion and control over territories in Asia and Africa that took place from the 16th to the 20th centuries. 

During this time, European powers, including Spain, Portugal, France, Britain, and others, established colonies and empires in Asia and Africa and exerted significant influence over the political, economic, and cultural life of these regions.

The colonization of Asia and Africa was driven by a number of factors, including economic interests, religious missions, and a belief in European superiority. European powers sought to exploit the natural resources of these regions and establish trade routes and markets for their goods. They also sought to spread Christianity and impose their cultural and political values on the people of these regions.

One of the most significant events in the history of European colonialism and imperialism was the partitioning of Africa, which took place in the late 19th century. This process, known as the "Scramble for Africa," involved the division of the continent into European colonies and spheres of influence.

 The partitioning of Africa was a chaotic and often violent process, and it resulted in the establishment of a number of European colonies on the continent, including Algeria, Angola, and others.

The impact of European colonialism and imperialism on Asia and Africa was significant and lasting. It contributed to the exploitation of natural resources, the disruption of traditional societies, and the suppression of local cultures and traditions. It also led to the establishment of oppressive and discriminatory systems of governance, such as apartheid in South Africa.

In the modern era, the legacy of European colonialism and imperialism continues to be felt in many parts of Asia and Africa. Many countries in these regions continue to grapple with the economic, political, and social consequences of colonialism, including poverty, inequality, and conflict.

European colonialism and imperialism had a profound and lasting impact on Asia and Africa. It was a complex and often violent process that shaped the political, economic, and cultural landscape of these regions and left a lasting legacy that continues to be felt today.

Here is a list of African countries and their former colonial masters:

  • Algeria - France

  • Angola - Portugal

  • Benin - France

  • Botswana - Britain

  • Burkina Faso - France

  • Burundi - Belgium

  • Cameroon - Germany, Britain, France

  • Cape Verde - Portugal

  • Central African Republic - France

  • Chad - France

  • Comoros - France

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo - Belgium

  • Republic of the Congo - France

  • Côte d'Ivoire - France

  • Djibouti - France

  • Egypt - Britain

  • Equatorial Guinea - Spain

  • Eritrea - Italy, Britain

  • Ethiopia - Italy

  • Gabon - France

  • The Gambia - Britain

  • Ghana - Britain

  • Guinea - France

  • Guinea-Bissau - Portugal

  • Kenya - Britain

  • Lesotho - Britain

  • Liberia - United States

  • Libya - Italy

  • Madagascar - France

  • Malawi - Britain

  • Mali - France

  • Mauritania - France

  • Mauritius - Britain

  • Morocco - France, Spain

  • Mozambique - Portugal

  • Namibia - Germany, South Africa

  • Niger - France

  • Nigeria - Britain

  • Rwanda - Germany, Belgium

  • São Tomé and Príncipe - Portugal

  • Senegal - France

  • Seychelles - Britain

  • Sierra Leone - Britain

  • Somalia - Italy, Britain

  • South Africa - Britain

  • South Sudan - Britain

  • Sudan - Britain, Egypt

  • Swaziland - Britain

  • Tanzania - Germany, Britain

  • Togo - Germany, France

  • Tunisia - France

  • Uganda - Britain

  • Western Sahara - Spain

  • Zambia - Britain

  • Zimbabwe - Britain

Note: This list includes all African countries that were colonized by European powers, as well as the colonial powers that controlled them. Some countries, such as Cameroon and Egypt, were colonized by multiple powers at different times in their history.

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